Value added – The difference between the value/price of a good as they leave one stage of production and the cost of the inputs as they entered that stage.
Variable – A measure that can change.
Velocity of money – The number of times a dollar bill (or other currency) changes hands on average during one year. This can be measured as the nominal GDP value divided by the stock of money.
Vicious-circle-of-poverty hypothesis – The idea that poverty is self-perpetuating because poor countries are not able to save and therefore invest enough to accumulate enough capital to grow out of poverty.
Voucher – A token given by the government to households which they can use to buy or receive certain goods and services.